Dragomir Bondžić, ULOGA SRPSKIH I HRVATSKIH NAUČNIH USTANOVA I NAUČNIKA U KREIRANJU I SPROVOĐENJU JUGOSLOVENSKE NUKLEARNE POLITIKE 1945–1960
Jugoslovenska država je posle Drugog svetskog rata pokrenula intenzivna istraživanja usmerena na mirnodopsku primenu nuklearne energije i u tu svrhu osnovala niz naučnih ustanova i školovala potrebne naučne kadrove. Sredinom 50-ih godina je osnovana i Savezna komisija za nuklearnu energiju kao organ koji je rukovodio, koordinirao i usmeravao nuklearna istraživanja i formulisao državnu nuklearnu politiku. Cilj članka je da se prikaže učešće srpskih i hrvatskih naučnih ustanova, Instituta „Boris Kidrič“ u Vinči i Instituta „Ruđer Bošković“ u Zagrebu, i pojedinih srpskih i hrvatskih naučnika, pre svega Pavla Savića i Ivana Supeka, u kreiranju i sprovođenju jugoslovenske nuklearne politike, kao i da se ukaže na njihove sukobe, neslaganja i različite poglede. Proces se prati do početka 60-ih godina, kada su nuklearne institute napustili njihovi osnivači i kada je posle perioda izgradnje i uspona, došlo do opadanja zainteresovanosti države, smanjenja finansijskih sredstava i postepenog posustajanja u razvoju zajedničkih nuklearnih naučnih istraživanja.
Dragomir Bondžić, THE ROLE OF THE SERBIAN AND CROATIAN SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS AND SCIENTISTS IN THE CREATION AND CARRYING THE YUGOSLAV NUCLEAR POLICY 1945-1960
No matter the war distraction and weak capacities and tradition in the science, especially in physics and studies of atomistics, socialist Yugoslavia started with ambitious project in the scientific nuclear research. After the political conflict with Soviet Union and People’s Democracy states, gathered around the Cominform Resolution in June 1948, a basis for nuclear research were established: the nuclear research institutes were formed, their premisses and laboratories started to be built, different equipment were obtained, and the work has started. Institute in Vinca near Belgrade was established in January 1948 (in mid-1950s named “Biris Kidric”). Then in 1949, the Institute “Jozef Stefan” was formed in Ljubljana, and in 1950 in Zagreb, the Institute “Rudjer Boskovic”. All those institutes had the task to carry project consisted of fundamental research in areas of atomic and nuclear physics and adoption of the nuclear energy in civil purposes. From its initial steps, the project was under the firm control and scrutiny of highest state institutions and federal State Security Service (UDB-a). Moreover, in the highest political circles, a hidden and unrealistic ambition emerged that this project should led to creating of nuclear weapon. In March 1955, a Federal Commission for Nuclear Energy was formed as the body which had a task to run, control and coordinate all nuclear research and to create general state policy on this issue. By the mid and late 1950s, a centralized nuclear programme was developed thanks to large investment of the Yugoslav state, developed international cooperation and finally Soviet assistance. All the three institutes in Belgrade, Zagreb and Ljubljana were connected with formal ties and linked to the state bodies that coordinated the nuclear research. Inter-institute meetings were organized to coordinate the activities of all three institutes. Their representatives were members of the Federal Commission for Nuclear Energy and its respective bodies. No matter working on same project, the cooperation between three institutes was hampered with conflicts of the representatives of the institutes caused by different standpoints to the state policy, intentions to operate more independently, to have a better position in scientific system of Yugoslavia, by resistance to federal authorities, mutual rivalry, strive for better budget allowances and finally by the personal misunderstandings of the scientists in each of the three institute. Such attitudes hampered the unity and efficiency of the centralized state nuclear programme. At the end of the 1950s, no matter the resistance from the scientist belonging to all of three institutes, an orientation of the nuclear programme for building the nuclear plants prevailed. Institutes should support such state activities. However, during the mid-1960s, in the process of slow weakening of the federal Yugoslav state, interest of the highest political circles for nuclear research constantly deceased. Until the end of this decade Federal Commission for Nuclear Energy was disbanded and centralized nuclear program ceased to exist.